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Aircraft Performance, Stability and control with experiments in Flight Lecture Note

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Name of Notes : – Aircraft Performance, Stability and control with experiments in Flight Lecture Note

Introduction

The origin of aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th to early 20th centuries, although the work of Sir George Cayley dates from the last decade of the 18th to mid-19th century. One of the most important people in the history of aeronautics and a pioneer in aeronautical engineering, Cayley is credited as the first person to separate the forces of lift and drag, which affect any atmospheric flight vehicle.

Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical, with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. Some key elements, like fluid dynamics, were understood by 18th-century scientists.

In December 1903, the Wright Brothers performed the first sustained, controlled flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft, lasting 12 seconds. The 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft.

Between World Wars I and II, great leaps were made in the field, accelerated by the advent of mainstream civil aviation. Notable airplanes of this era include the Curtiss JN 4, the Farman F.60 Goliath, and Fokker Trimotor. Notable military airplanes of this period include the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, the Supermarine Spitfire and the Messerschmitt Bf 109 from Japan, United Kingdom, and Germany respectively. A significant development in aerospace engineering came with the first operational Jet engine-powered airplane, the Messerschmitt Me 262 which entered service in 1944 towards the end of the second World War.

The first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958, considering the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft (aero) and spacecraft (space) under the newly coined term aerospace.

In response to the USSR launching the first satellite, Sputnik, into space on October 4, 1957, U.S. aerospace engineers launched the first American satellite on January 31, 1958. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War. In 1969, Apollo 11, the first manned space mission to the moon took place. It saw three astronauts enter orbit around the Moon, with two, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, visiting the lunar surface. The third astronaut, Michael Collins, stayed in orbit to rendezvous with Armstrong and Aldrin after their visit.

An important innovation came on January 30, 1970, when the Boeing 747 made its first commercial flight from New York to London. This aircraft made history and became known as the “Jumbo Jet” or “Whale”[12] due to its ability to hold up to 480 passengers.

Another significant development in aerospace engineering came in 1976, with the development of the first passenger supersonic aircraft, the Concorde. The development of this aircraft was agreed upon by the French and British on November 29, 1962.

On December 21, 1988, the Antonov An-225 Mriya cargo aircraft commenced its first flight. It holds the records for the world’s heaviest aircraft, heaviest airlifted cargo, and longest airlifted cargo, and has the widest wingspan of any aircraft in operational service.

On October 25, 2007, the Airbus A380 made its maiden commercial flight from Singapore to Sydney, Australia. This aircraft was the first passenger plane to surpass the Boeing 747 in terms of passenger capacity, with a maximum of 853. Though development of this aircraft began in 1988 as a competitor to the 747, the A380 made its first test flight in April 2005.

Modules / Lectures

  • Introduction
  • Standard Atmosphere
  • Altitude and Airspeed
  • Introduction to Performance of Flight and Experiments
  • Steady and level light – Equations of motion, Drag polar and Thrust required
  • Cruise Flight – Power required, Velocity for Minimum Power required
  • Cruise Flight – Thrust and Power available, Maximum and minimum cruise velocity, Effects of
  • altitude on power
  • Cruise Flight – Range and Endurance of Propeller Driven Aircraft
  • Cruise Flight – Range and Endurance of Jet driven Aircraft.
  • Climb Performance – Introduction and Equations of Motion.
  • Stability and Control – Discussion on Equilibrium, Static and Dynamic Stability
  • Stability and Control – Some frequently used notations, Trim – A pilot’s perspective
  • Stability and Control – Discussion on Center of Pressure, Aerodynamic Center and Trim
  • Static Stability – Wing contribution, Tail contribution and Static Margin
  • Static Stability and Control – Elevator Control power, Elevator Angle to trim and Estimation of Stick
  • Fixed Neutral Point
  • Stick Free Stability and Control
  • Stick Free Stability and Control – Stick free Neutral Point, Stick force and Estimation of Stick free neutral Point.
  • Maneuvering Flight: Introduction, Steady Coordinated turn.
  • Maneuvering Flight: Steady Pull up, Relationship between stick axed Neutral and Maneuvering point.
  • Maneuvering Flight: Stick Fixed Maneuvering point
  • Maneuvering Flight: Stick free maneuvering point, Stick force Gradient
  • Lateral and Directional Aerodynamic Model
  • Directional Stability and Control
  • Lateral Stability and Control
  • Various Coordinate System
  • 6 DOF equations of motion
  • Euler angles & Kinematic equations
  • Flight Path Equations, Gravity Equations and Combined 6-DOF Model
  • Flight Experiment: Instruments used in light experiment, pre and post light measurement of aircraft
  • Flight Experiment: Cruise and Climb performance
  • Flight Experiment: Flight tests to estimate stick free and axed, neutral and maneuvering points
  • Test methods to determine dominant lateral-directional stability cosecants
  • Test methods to determine dominant lateral-directional stability cosecants
  • Phugoid eject and Dutch roll motion

Additional information

Product Name

Aircraft Performance, Stability and control with experiments in Flight Lecture Note

Product Size

10.6 MB

Format

File Format

File Category

DEPARTMENT/COURSE

Need For

College, Competition, Entrance, Exams, PSU, Semester, University

Product Type

Written By

Dr. A. K. Ghosh, Dr. Deepu Philip, Mr.Yogendra Singh

Provided By

IIT Kanpur

Uploaded By

Roop Chandra

Languages

English

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