Probability and Distributions Lecture Note


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Name of Notes : – Probability and Distributions Lecture Note


A probability distribution is a mathematical description of the probabilities of events, subsets of the sample space. The sample space, often denoted by , is the set of all possible outcomes of a random phenomenon being observed; it may be any set: a set of real numbers, a set of vectors, a set of arbitrary non-numerical values, etc. For example, the sample space of a coin flip would be  = {heads, tails} .

To define probability distributions for the specific case of random variables (so the sample space can be seen as a numeric set), it is common to distinguish between discrete and continuous random variables. In the discrete case, it is sufficient to specify a probability mass function  assigning a probability to each possible outcome: for example, when throwing a fair die, each of the six values 1 to 6 has the probability 1/6. The probability of an event is then defined to be the sum of the probabilities of the outcomes that satisfy the event; for example, the probability of the event “the dice rolls an even value” is

In contrast, when a random variable takes values from a continuum then typically, any individual outcome has probability zero and only events that include infinitely many outcomes, such as intervals, can have positive probability. For example, consider measuring the weight of a piece of ham in the supermarket, and assume the scale has many digits of precision. The probability that it weighs exactly 500 g is zero, as it will most likely have some non-zero decimal digits. Nevertheless, one might demand, in quality control, that a package of “500 g” of ham must weigh between 490 g and 510 g with at least 98% probability, and this demand is less sensitive to the accuracy of measurement instruments.

Modules / Lectures

  • Probability
  • Random variable and its distribution
  • Function of a random variable and its distribution
  • Some special discrete distributions and their properties
  • Special absolutely continuous distributions and their properties
  • Random vector and its joint distribution
  • Limiting distributions

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Probability and Distributions Lecture Note

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19.1 MB


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College, Competition, Entrance, Exams, PSU, Semester, University

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Written By

Prof. Neeraj Misra

Provided By

IIT Kanpur

Uploaded By

Roop Chandra




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